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Saturday, January 6, 2018


Pastor Cinque talks about the coming Blood Red Blue Moon and future pole shift, about all of the social and weather changes that occurred after the last Blood Red Blue Moon in 1866, and about the potential social and weather changes that could occur after this Blood Red Blue Moon of 2018.

He also talks about how Pole Shift is related to Fast Earth and "expando planet" hypothesis and how the Earth has been under constant and rapid change since Noah's Flood (postdiluvian period).

First Blue Moon Total Lunar Eclipse in 150 Years Coming This Month

First Blue Moon Total Lunar Eclipse in 150 Years Coming This Month
The moon turns blood-red in this image of a total lunar eclipse from 2004. A total eclipse of a "blue moon" will occur on Jan. 31, 2018.
Credit: Fred Espenak/NASA

The first eclipse of 2018 will be a lunar one that comes at the very end of the month, on Jan. 31. 
It will be a total eclipse that involves the second full moon of the month, popularly referred to as a Blue Moon. Such a skywatching event hasn't happened for more than 150 years.
The eclipse will take place during the middle of the night, and the Pacific Ocean will be turned toward the moon at the time. Central and eastern Asia, Indonesia, New Zealand and most of Australia will get a fine view of this moon show in the evening sky. Heading farther west into western Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, the eclipse will already be underway as the moon rises. [Super Blue Blood-Moon 2018: When, Where and How to See It]

Below, we provide a timetable for the main stages of the moon's passage through the Earth's shadow for six time zones — one for Hawaii (HST), one for Alaska (AKST) and four across the U.S and Canada: Pacific (PST), Mountain (MST), Central (CST) and Eastern (EST). All times are a.m.

Timetable for the main stages of the Jan. 31, 2018, blue moon total lunar eclipse, for six time zones.
Timetable for the main stages of the Jan. 31, 2018, blue moon total lunar eclipse, for six time zones.
Credit: Joe Rao/

Along the U.S. West Coast, the total phase begins at 4:51 a.m. PST. The farther east you go, the closer the start of the partial phases will coincide with moonrise. Along the U.S. Atlantic Seaboard, for instance, the moon will have only just begun to enter the darkest part of Earth's shadow, the umbra, at 6:48 a.m. EST when it will disappear from view below the west-northwest horizon. The duration of the total phase is 77 minutes, with the moon tracking through the southern part of the Earth's shadow. So, during totality, the moon's lower limb will appear much brighter than the dark upper limb. [In Photos: The Snow Moon Lunar Eclipse & Comet 45P Encounter]
How unusual are Blue Moon eclipses? To answer that question, we consulted the reference book Canon of Lunar Eclipses, 1500 B.C. - A.D. 3000, by Bao-Lin Liu and Alan D. Fiala (Willmann-Bell Inc., 1992).  

This NASA chart by eclipse expert Fred Espenak details the visibility range and times for the Jan. 31, 218 total lunar eclipse, which also occurs during a blue moon and near a supermoon.
This NASA chart by eclipse expert Fred Espenak details the visibility range and times for the Jan. 31, 218 total lunar eclipse, which also occurs during a blue moon and near a supermoon.
Credit: NASA

After this year, the next time that a Blue Moon passes through Earth's umbra will be on Dec. 31, 2028, and, after that, on Jan. 31, 2037. Both of these eclipses will be total. Before 2017, there was an 8 percent partial eclipse on Dec. 31, 2009, but, for a total eclipse of a Blue Moon, we have to go all the way back to March 31, 1866.  
So, the upcoming eclipse on Jan. 31 will be the first total eclipse of a Blue Moon in nearly 152 years!
We will have more to say about January's eclipse here at in the coming weeks.

Pole shift

 2 kings 20:9-11

Then Isaiah said, “This is the sign to you from the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing which He has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees or go backward ten degrees?”
And Hezekiah answered, “It is an easy thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees; no, but let the shadow go backward ten degrees.”
So Isaiah the prophet cried out to the Lord, and He brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down on the sundial of Ahaz. 

Joshua 10:9-14King James Version (KJV)

Joshua therefore came unto them suddenly, and went up from Gilgal all night.
10 And the Lord discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.
11 And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, and were in the going down to Bethhoron, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword.
12 Then spake Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.
13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.
14 And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the Lordhearkened unto the voice of a man: for the Lord fought for Israel.

JASHER 88:61-65

61 And whilst they were fleeing, the Lord sent upon them hailstones from heaven, and more of them died by the hailstones, than by the slaughter of the children of Israel.
62 And the children of Israel pursued them, and they still smote them in the road, going on and smiting them.
63 And when they were smiting, the day was declining toward evening, and Joshua said in the sight of all the people, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon, and thou moon in the valley of Ajalon, until the nation shall have revenged itself upon its enemies.
64 And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Joshua, and the sun stood still in the midst of the heavens, and it stood still six and thirty moments, and the moon also stood still and hastened not to go down a whole day.
65 And there was no day like that, before it or after it, that the Lord hearkened to the voice of a man, for the Lord fought for Israel.

ACCORDING TO JEWISH TALMUDIC MYTH, (people who believe in the false planet X and the lie that Black skin is a curse) THE EARTH HAD A POLE SHIFT AT THIS TIME.  MIXED IN LIES THERE'S TRUTH.

The Night The Stars Stood Still
By Robertino Solàrion

An expanded version of this essay can be found in Chapter Four of Planet X Nibiru : Slow-Motion Doomsday.
"Then spoke Joshua to the Lord in the day when the Lord gave the Amorites over to the men of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel, 'Sun, stand thou still at Gibeon, and thou Moon in the valley of Aíjalon.' And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the nation took vengeance on their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? The sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day. There has been no day like it before or since, when the Lord hearkened to the voice of a man; for the Lord fought for Israel." Joshua 10:12-14.
This passage could be brushed aside as only another Biblical myth or "miracle" if it weren't for one coincidental event halfway around the globe. There's a 6-7 hour time difference between Lake Titicaca, Peru, and the Land of Canaan, and 8 hours difference from México City. Legends in America tell of a period when for a whole day's time, the Sun did not rise. Cold fell upon the land, and the people lived in great fear, gazing in all directions, speculating on where "the New Sun" would rise. Finally, after the passage of some hours, the Sun rose again but in a different direction from where it had risen before.
In Egypt there are legends that at one time the Sun rose in what is now the west and set in what is now the east. A mural discovered in the Tomb of Senmut shows the Constellations in a different relationship to the rising and setting of the Sun than they are today. For additional information on this subject, the reader is referred to Worlds In Collision by Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky and The Lost Realms by Zecharia Sitchin.
When it's 11AM in Jerusalem, it's 5AM in La Paz, 4AM in Lima and 3AM in México City. If "the sun stayed in the midst of heaven" over Palestine at 11AM and if this also happened to occur in mid-August, the beginning of the Mayan New Year, when the Pleiades are overhead in the early morning sky, then over the Americas on this date the Pleiades themselves would seem to stand still in the predawn sky. Compare this information with that contained in the essay "Day of the Dead."
When did this event occur? According to Dr. Velikovsky, it happened 52 years after the Israelite Exodus from Egypt, which occurred in about 1587 BCE. This would correspond to the last arrival of the Planet Nibiru into our vicinity of the Solar System, as has been discussed elsewhere. This 52-year period between two possible "cosmic catastrophes" corresponds exactly to the Mayan 52-year sacred calendar connected to the Pleiades. Therefore, there must have been at least one, possibly even two, Polar Axis Shifts during the time-period of about 1587-1535 BCE.
During a Polar Axis Shift the north-south-east-west perspective of every place on Earth would change because the North and South Poles would be in new latitudes and longitudes. For this to happen, the following would have to occur : the Earth would cease its rotation in its current direction, change polar alignment on a "Polar Pivotal Axis" of some sort, and then begin to rotate as usual on its new north-south polar axis. If it takes a day for this to happen, then at some point in that day certain people in certain locations would see the Sun "stand still" or even move in an odd direction, and others around the globe would see the Stars and perhaps the Moon "stand still." If those who saw the Stars stand still also saw the Pleiades high overhead at the time of this strange event, no doubt they would associate the Pleiades, Abode of the Gods, with this occurrence. On top of that, the Mayas believed that occasionally the Earth was "destroyed" in cycles called "tuns" that lasted for certain absolutely even multiples of 52-year periods. See also The Black Road To The Sacred Tree.
Can all of this be mere coincidence? Or is the arrival/departure of the Planet X Nibiru what is responsible for these ancient memories of catastrophe?

Jasher 2:1-6- One 3rd of the earth Flooded

1 And it was in the hundred and thirtieth year of the life of Adam upon the earth, that he again knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bare a son in his likeness and in his image, and she called his name Seth, saying, Because God has appointed me another seed in the place of Abel, for Cain has slain him.
2 And Seth lived one hundred and five years, and he begat a son; and Seth called the name of his son Enosh, saying, Because in that time the sons of men began to multiply, and to afflict their souls and hearts by transgressing and rebelling against God.
3 And it was in the days of Enosh that the sons of men continued to rebel and transgress against God, to increase the anger of the Lord against the sons of men.
4 And the sons of men went and they served other gods, and they forgot the Lord who had created them in the earth: and in those days the sons of men made images of brass and iron, wood and stone, and they bowed down and served them.
5 And every man made his god and they bowed down to them, and the sons of men forsook the Lord all the days of Enosh and his children; and the anger of the Lord was kindled on account of their works and abominations which they did in the earth.
6 And the Lord caused the waters of the river Gihon to overwhelm them, and he destroyed and consumed them, and he destroyed the third part of the earth, and notwithstanding this, the sons of men did not turn from their evil ways, and their hands were yet extended to do evil in the sight of the Lord.

Jubilees 4:23-24
  1. And on account of it (God) brought the waters of the flood upon all the land of Eden; for there he was set as a sign and that he should testify against all the children of men, that he should recount all the deeds of the generations until the day of condemnation.
  2. And he burnt the incense of the sanctuary, (even) sweet spices acceptable before the Lord on the Mount.


The ancient astronomer-priest did hold advanced and to their minds truly sacred knowledge of the movements of the stars, and the heavenly cycles, as is commonly accepted.

But what if they held another type of knowledge as well, ancient knowledge?

Ancient knowledge the likes of which the Egyptian priest who Solon, Plato's ancestor, refers to when he says to Solon:
Egyptian priest: Oh Solon, Solon, you Greeks are all children, and there's no such thing as an old Greek.

Solon: What do you mean by that?

Egyptian priest: You are all young in mind, you have no belief rooted in old tradition, and no knowledge hoary with age.

And the reason is this… With you, and others, writing and the other necessities of civilization have only just been developed when the periodic scourge of the deluge descends and spares none but the unlettered and the uncultured - so that you have to begin again like children, in complete ignorance of what happened in early times

You remember only one deluge, though there have been many
Now the veracity of Plato's claims have been called into question, and rightly so.

We should never believe anything completely just because it was claimed by someone, or written somewhere… even if it was Plato who said it.

But the interesting thing is that there is supporting scientific evidence and mythical evidence from another ancient culture both of which identify the same dates for the global flood, and the claim that "there have been many" floods.

The more ancient flood myth is from India, and it is the Kumari Kandam myths which are the myths about an ancient advanced civilization that existed more than 10,000 years ago in India who built great centers for learning and in general is very reminiscent of the Atlantis myth.

Graham Hancock explores this in detail in his phenomenal book Underworld - The Mysterious Origins of Civilization.
"The first great deluge took place in 16,000 BC… The second one occurred in 14,058 BC when parts of Kumari Kandam went under the sea. The third one happened in 9564 BC when a large part of Kumari Kandam was submerged."
(Underworld, p. 245)
Coincidentally the dates given in the Kumari Kandam myth for the last deluge closely match the date that Plato (and thus the Egyptian priest gives Solon) for the inundation of the civilization of Atlantis.

According to the Egyptian priest Atlantis was inundated around 9600 BCE.

The fact that these ancient cultures have myths which identify that specific date is highly intriguing and at least increases their credibly.

But astonishingly, not only does modern science identify a very similar time frame for a global superflood that occurred right around that date, science also predicts that there were in fact three global superfloods just like the Kumari Kandam myth states occurring roughly between the approximate time bands:
  • 15,000-14,000 years ago
  • 12,000-11,000 years ago
  •   8,000-7,000 years ago
These dates are given to us by the work of Professor John Shaw from the University of Alberta (Underworld, p.65).

As it it can be clearly seen, the Egyptian priests date of 9500 BCE lies right in the middle of the period for the global superflood which is given to us by science.

Now the point of all of this in relationship to the age of the pyramids is merely to prove the validity of the statements made by the Egyptian priest, and thus how he specifically says that the Egyptian culture is many thousands of years old with written records extending back 8000 years, and "knowledge hoary with age".

Now that we have seen that the priests date of the global flood was true, and the occurrence of multiple floods, we must accept that the rest of his claims also have at least some truth to them, if their are not entirely truthful.

Thus as an ancient Egyptian priest states clearly, there was much ancient knowledge passed on within the Egyptian priesthood.

And then at such a time that they were either instructed to act on the knowledge, or that they decided that it was time to, the could have, in their position as adviser to the Kings and Pharaohs, enlightened them of this knowledge and the cosmic alignment within Egypt and urged him to act on it.

It would not have taken much convincing considering the glory in the eyes of man and the Gods that the Pharaohs would have gained to participate in this work.

Therefore, based on the evidence at hand (that which I have provided here and that which is beyond the scope of this specific article) we should at least consider the possibility that the pyramids of Giza where built around the date of 11,451 BCE by an ancient and as yet lost civilization.

And it was these specific pyramids and their alignment with the Nile and thus the cosmos, which gave birth to the idea that Egypt was made in "the image of heaven".

It may have even been this knowledge and the pyramids themselves which spurred the ancient Egyptians into the massive pyramid building project that was the pyramid age.

Not necessarily in an effort to mirror heaven on earth, although that was definitely a motivation, but more to bring themselves closer to the Gods who had already begun this work, and thus become Gods themselves by continuing on with the work that had already begun in the Memphite Necropolis.


1And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. 2Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. 3Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 4For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. 5And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.
The Floodwaters Arrive
6And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. 7And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.8Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, 9There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah. 10And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. 11In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 12And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
13In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; 14They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. 15And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. 16And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in.
The Duration of the Flood
17And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. 18And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. 19And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. 20Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. 21And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 22All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. 23And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. 24And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.

From Annenberg Learner

METAMORPHIC ROCKS- WHY ROCKS BEND AND FOLD- PART 3: COMPLIMENTARY EVIDENCE JOE REILLY: So Britt, I think I understand how colliding plates can cause mountains to form. But if we take a look at this map and find the Green Mountains, right about here, theyʼre nowhere near a plate boundary. I donʼt get it. Are we sure that this is how these mountains formed? BRITT ARGOW: Well, Joe, scientists believe that at the time these mountains were forming, Clay Point was near a plate boundary. Geologists have determined that the age of Clay Point rocks is about 500 million years old. Using data from rocks around the world, scientists can model what the surface of the Earth might have looked like back then. It turns out that half a billion years ago, the African plate slammed into North America. When the two slabs of continental material collided, it drove the Green Mountains skyward. Scientists like Keith Klepeis believe that although Clay Point is relatively far away from where the plates collided, it still was affected by the enormous pressure of that collusion. The rocks folded and started to break, as seen in this v-shaped fracture. Ten miles east of Clay Point is another outcrop, where folding, faulting, and breaking of the rock occurred. This outcrop is called Lone Rock. Here we can see evidence of even greater pressures from the plate collusion, where one rock was thrust up on top of another.

KEITH KLEPEIS: When you walk up the beach at Lone Rock, the first thing that strikes your eye is that youʼve got a cliff face that has two different colored rocks. Thereʼs a black rock in the bottom part of the cliff, and thereʼs a yellow rock at the top part. And in between is a large crack that separates the two. Now, geologists have been able to determine that the yellow rock on top of the cliff is actually older than the rocks located at the bottom of the cliff. And thatʼs a very unusual configuration. And the reason why we know itʼs unusual is that most often, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the youngest rocks on the top--the very opposite situation. You can imagine, if we have a rock layer, and the rock layers are made up of sediment, and those sediments are percolating down through the air, through the water, the first layers to form are down here at the bottom. Then as those sediments accumulate, the youngest ones start to form at the top. So we have this normal sequence, oldest on the bottom, youngest on the top. Thatʼs not what we see at Lone Rock. At Lone Rock, we have the opposite situation, where the oldest rocks are on top, and the youngest rocks are on the bottom.

BRITT ARGOW: The pressures at Lone Rock were powerful enough to fault and thrust huge sections of rock on top of each other. We can even see evidence of this movement in the crack between the two rock faces.

KLEPEIS: When you go up into that crack and look in the bottom, you see little grooves, little track marks, little scrapes along that bottom layer.

ARGOW: Imagine Lone Rock before the mountain building event. Here, the layers on the bottom are the oldest, and the layers on the top are the youngest, as we would expect. But as the plates collided, enormous pressure folded parts of the rock. At some point, the rock faulted. The continued pressure thrust one section of rock on top of another, doubling the rock sequence. After years of weathering, the top layer eroded away, leaving a cliff face with older rocks on top of younger rocks. And if we look carefully at the bottom layer at Lone Rock, small folds provide evidence of extreme pressure and metamorphism. Further east, in the heart of the Green Mountains, more evidence of this enormous pressure exists. But most of it is buried. Some of the most intensely metamorphosed rock occurs within the central cores of mountains.

KLEPEIS: Now, what this is telling us, the reason why metamorphic rocks are important is because they tell us about immense forces that have occurred sometime in the past that have changed rocks. Theyʼve changed them away from their original configuration, just like we saw at Clay Point, where rocks that were originally horizontal or flatlying became folded and steeply dipping. Metamorphic rocks tell us about these forces, these changes that have happened in the past. It is amazing. I mean, what this is telling us is intense pressure, and the rocks respond to that pressure, and they create features that we can read today and piece together that story. Itʼs telling us about an ancient mountain building event that created the western part of Vermont, and has created some of these fantastic exposures that are now along the shores of Lake Champlain.

Jasher 6:1

13 And at the end of seven days, in the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, the waters of the flood were upon the earth.
14 And all the fountains of the deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

Genesis 8:14

Genesis 8:14-19King James Version (KJV)

14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
15 And God spake unto Noah, saying,
16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee.
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.
18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him:
19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.


The Semites
21Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. 22The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 23And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 24And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. 25And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 27And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 28And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba,29And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 30And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east. 31These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.
32These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.


Growing earth theory (expanding) The Expanding Earth theory (Growing Earth theory) with various geological and visual interpretations to consider, has some intriguing ideas. The continents form a nearly perfect Pangea supercontinent on a planet 80% its present diameter, on our present size globe there are gaps. expanding earth theory growing Geology suggests that all the ocean crust rock is 200 million years young or younger. 

Covering about 2/3rds of the planets surface, with new basaltic rock extruding out and spreading from the middle of the oceans floors. The Earth's continents appear to fit together on a much smaller planet, to form a 'supercontinent' that would be the whole Earth's surface. Pangea seperationintro thumb In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of the Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass ... 

Supercontinents have assembled and dispersed multiple times in the geologic past. Supercontinent names: Ur (Vaalbara), Kenorland, Protopangea-Paleopangea, Columbia (Nuna), Rodinia, Pannotia, Pangaea. Supercontinent | That Wikipedia Ocean floor rock is new, thin and different Most of our globes actual surface, differs to land rock. Peer reviewed theories also state relatively not very thick. Dating techniques suggest it is very very fresh. is the earth planet still growing expandingOceanic crust underlies most of the two-thirds of the Earth’s surface which is covered by the oceans. It has a remarkably uniform composition (mostly 49% ± 2% SiO2) and thickness (mostly 7 ± 1 km). The ocean floor is the most dynamic part of the Earth’s surface. As a result, no part of the oceanic crust existing today is more than 200 million years old, which is less than 5% of the age of the Earth itself. British Antarctic Survey - Oceanic Crust In a thought experiment what could happen if the Earth grows or expands? Articles considering, in theory, a globe expansion interpretation. Could material and life from the formation of the planet, and just after, have survived these processes? Growing Earth Theory (Expanding Earth Theory) Growing Earth (Expanding Earth hypothesis) suggest that instead of the supercontinents theory the planet has expanded from its original supercontinent that was the whole Earth's surface, or, fitted together better on a planet with a smaller volume. Over the centuries there have been a lot of theories about a hollow earth and an expanding Earth and how or what processes could cause a planet to grow. The free video below is by Neal Adams, who has rebooted the hypothesis and discussion/arguments about if the Earth has expanded in the past. Neil Adams has his own unique ideas about the mechanics of how the planet could have grown. They are not necessarily what others who are interested in exploring the idea of the possibility of a reduced or increased planet diameter. Expansion and contraction pains? Could the planet have had periods of increasing its size, decreasing its surface area, expanded, got smaller ... a few times to explain multiple supercontinents and orogeny (mountain building periods)? Exchanging Earth expanding earth energy puzzle space tornadoesBut how or what would trigger, cause, energise an Expanding Earth? What processes or mechanism could help with a Growing Earth? Could the energy and perhaps if extra mass is needed, come from what seems to be planet Earth receiving and exchanging energy and molecules/matter with our Sun and perhaps in a circuit with our solar system? With the other solar system bodies such as planets, moons, active asteroids and comets part of a plasma circuit and solar system engine? Click for the Exchanging Earth introduction or for a list of all the XEarth articles (blog).

FROM: On the incidence of debris flows from the early Little Ice Age to a future greenhouse climate:

 by Markus Stoffel, Martin Beniston

 A case study from the XSwiss Alps 4. Discussion [14] Results obtained from tree-ring series clearly show that the debris-flow frequency at Ritigraben increased in the 1866–1895 period that followed the maximum extent of LIA glaciers at other sites in the Alps and that events occurred most often in the early decades of the 20th century. Thereafter, debris flows were less frequently triggered in the case-study area. As a result and in contrast to studies from northern Europe [Matthews et al., 1997], there does not appear to have been enhanced debris-flow activity during the LIA. [15] The tree-ring data also indicate that relatively few debris flows occurred during the period from 1570 to 1860. As sediment availability does not seem to represent a limiting factor at Ritigraben, we infer from Pfister's [1999] proxy climate data that the scarcity of events was due to cooler summers and more frequent summer snowfalls in the debris-flow starting zone. 

The warming trend after the last LIA glacier advance in conjunction with abundant precipitation in summers and falls between 1864 and 1895 did, in contrast, favor an increase in the frequency. Similarly, the enhanced debris-flow activity reconstructed between 1916 and 1935 reflects the warm-wet conditions prevailing in the Swiss Alps during that particular period of the last century. [16] Based on observations of flooding in adjacent rivers, it also appears that debris flows at the case-study site would have been triggered more frequently by spatially limited summer thunderstorms from the 1860s until the 1980s. Since 1987, events have been released by synoptic weather systems located south of the Alps in late summer and fall. The reconstructed shift of debris-flow activity from June and July to August and September can be further explained by the negative trend observed for heavy summer rainfall and the slightly positive trend found in heavy fall precipitation intensities in the study region over the 20th century [Schmidli and Frei, 2005]. [17] While debris flows of the past have occurred mostly during summers with greater total precipitation than average, it is conceivable that in a greenhouse climate the frequency of such events could decrease because of shifts in the occurrence of extreme precipitation from summer to spring or fall by 2100, as suggested by a number of RCMs. 

The impacts of future precipitation events may be lower than today, because spring and fall temperatures are suggested to remain 4–7°C degrees below current summer temperatures in a greenhouse climate [Beniston, 2006]; the lower freezing levels that are expected in future springs and falls compared to current summers, and the buffering effects of snow might probably reduce the risk of debris flows to be released from the starting zone. However, there could be a risk of enhanced runoff in spring if abundant rain falls upon the snow pack. Given that sediment remains readily available in the upper basin and that the channel is regularly recharged with debris, the magnitude and impacts of future summertime debris flows could be greater than currently because of warmer temperatures and higher precipitation intensities, even if the frequency of summer events is likely to decrease.

THIS ALSO HAPPENED IN 1866:  Is it possible to have no full Moon in February during a leap year?

Everyone knows there can be two full Moons in a month. Is it possible to have no full Moon in a February containing 28 days?
Rising Moon
Courtesy Franz X. Kohlhauf
Yes, but only about four times in a century. This happened in 1999 and will next occur in 2018, assuming the phases are expressed in Universal Time. When February has no full Moon, January and March typically have two full Moons each (the second being widely hailed as a blue Moon). Much rarer is a 29-day February (in a leap year) with no full Moon. According to Peter Macdonald (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, December 1998, page 324), this oddity occurred in 1608 and won’t happen again until 2572.
— Roger W. Sinnott

Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875

 Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History2015
From U.S. History in Context
Content Level =
The Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 were passed by the U.S. Congress in an effort to make full citizens of and guarantee the rights of newly freed slaves after the American Civil War (1861–65). The Civil Rights Act of 1866granted all “citizens, of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude” the same economic, legal, and civil rights that had previously been afforded only to white citizens. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 explicitly granted and protected all “citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude” in their right to access public spaces and institutions. In granting these rights to all citizens and to African Americans in particular, Congress sought to redress the long history of discrimination and oppression directed toward blacks and other racial minorities in the United States. These acts proved difficult to enforce, however, especially in the former slave states of the South. It was not until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s that the promise of civil rights began to be truly fulfilled. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the federal government new powers to enforce antidiscrimination practices and also prohibited discrimination in hiring and employment.
One of the chief sources of conflict that led to the Civil War was the institution of slavery in the South. When the South lost the war, Congress moved quickly to pass the Thirteenth Amendment (1865), which abolished slavery throughout the United States. The country, however, was still deeply divided over the outcome of
The country … was still deeply divided over the outcome of the war and how to deal with the large population of newly freed slaves, and simply outlawing the practice of slavery did not mean that freed slaves were endowed with legal, political, and economic rights.


I regret that the bill, which has passed both Houses of Congress, entitled “An act to protect all persons in the United States in their civil rights and furnish the means of their vindication,” contains provisions which I can not approve consistently with my sense of duty to the whole people and my obligations to the Constitution of the United States. I am therefore constrained to return it to the Senate, the House in which it originated, with my objections to its becoming a law….
The right of Federal citizenship thus to be conferred on the several excepted races before mentioned is now for the first time proposed to be given by law. If, as is claimed by many, all persons who are native born already are, by virtue of the Constitution, citizens of the United States, the passage of the pending bill can not be necessary to make them such. If, on the other hand, such persons are not citizens, as may be assumed from the proposed legislation to make them such, the grave question presents itself whether, when eleven of the thirty-six States are unrepresented in Congress at the present time, it is sound policy to make our entire colored population and all other excepted classes citizens of the United States. Four millions of them have just emerged from slavery into freedom …. It may also be asked whether it is necessary that they should be declared citizens in order that they may be secured in the enjoyment of the civil rights proposed to be conferred by the bill. Those rights are, by Federal as well as State laws, secured to all domiciled aliens and foreigners, even before the completion of the process of naturalization; and it may safely be assumed that the same enactments are sufficient to give like protection and benefits to those for whom this bill provides special legislation. Besides, the policy of the Government from its origin to the present time seems to have been that persons who are strangers to and unfamiliar with our institutions and our laws should pass through a certain probation, at the end of which, before attaining the coveted prize, they must give evidence of their fitness to receive and to exercise the rights of citizens as contemplated by the Constitution of the United States. The bill in effect proposes a discrimination against large numbers of intelligent, worthy, and patriotic foreigners, and in favor of the negro, to whom, after long years of bondage, the avenues to freedom and intelligence have just now been suddenly opened….
The first section of the bill also contains an enumeration of the rights to be enjoyed by these classes so made citizens “in every State and Territory in the United States.” These rights are “to make and enforce contracts; to sue, be parties, and give evidence; to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property,” and to have “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by white citizens.” So, too, they are made subject to the same punishment, pains, and penalties in common with white citizens, and to none other. Thus a perfect equality of the white and colored races is attempted to be fixed by Federal law in every State of the Union over the vast field of State jurisdiction covered by these enumerated rights. In no one of these can any State ever exercise any power of discrimination between the different races….
In all our history, in all our experience as people living under Federal and State law, no such system as that contemplated by the details of this bill has ever before been proposed or adopted. They establish for the security of the colored race safeguards which go infinitely beyond any that the General Government has ever provided for the white race. In fact, the distinction of race and color is by the bill made to operate in favor of the colored and against the white race. They interfere with the municipal legislation of the States, with the relations existing exclusively between a State and its citizens, or between inhabitants of the same State—an absorption and assumption of power by the General Government which, if acquiesced in, must sap and destroy our federative system of limited powers and break down the barriers which preserve the rights of the States. It is another step, or rather stride, toward centralization and the concentration of all legislative powers in the National Government. …
SOURCE: Johnson, Andrew. “President Johnson's Veto of the Civil Rights Act, 1866.” A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Ed. James D. Richardson. Vol. 6. New York: Bureau of National Literature, 1897. 405–13.
the war and how to deal with the large population of newly freed slaves, and simply outlawing the practice of slavery did not mean that freed slaves were endowed with legal, political, and economic rights. In an effort to grant such rights and to forbid states from infringing on the rights of their citizens, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866. President Andrew Johnson (in office 1865–69), a Democrat from Tennessee, argued that the bill violated the rights of states to regulate their own affairs, and he refused to sign it. Nevertheless, Congress mustered enough votes to overturn Johnson's veto and enact the law. Congress subsequently overturned numerous other vetos as it battled with the president on how to reorganize the Southern states in the aftermath of the Civil War.
In June 1866 Congress proposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to all people born in the United States, including African Americans, and guaranteed that all laws (both federal and state) applied equally to African Americans and whites. Congress further required that no Southern state could be readmitted to the Union without first ratifying the amendment. The amendment—formally adopted in 1868—essentially replaced the disputed Civil Rights Act of 1866.
Despite the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” for all people, racial discrimination, segregation, and oppression continued throughout the South as well as in much of the North. African Americans were discriminated against in employment, housing, and education, and they were denied entry to various public spaces. In an attempt to end such practices, Congress passed a new Civil Rights Act on March 1, 1875. It sought to protect all citizens from discrimination in places of public accommodation, stating that “all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances [transportation] on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement … and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color.”
The 1875 law proved ineffectual, however, and Southern states began to pass so-called Jim Crow laws that legally enforced racial segregation by forcing blacks to attend separate and substandard schools, denying them access to restaurants, and requiring them to use separate entrances to public buildings, among many other measures. Segregationists were further emboldened when, in 1883, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 as unconstitutional. According to the decision of the court, Congress did not have the authority to regulate the prevalent social mores of any state.
Over the next 80 years, the racial equality called for in the Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 was largely ignored and disobeyed. African Americans in the South were granted almost no economic, legal, or political rights. In the North, African Americans also suffered from discrimination and segregation. Although there were numerous attempts to claim greater legal recognition during this period, not until the emergence of the civil rights movement in the mid-twentieth century did the United States truly begin to acknowledge and protect the rights of African Americans and other minorities. A major part of this process was the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on a person's color, race, national origin, religion, or sex. Various enforcement mechanisms, together with support in the form of court rulings, made the 1964 legislation an effective mechanism for achieving greater civil equality and liberating African Americans to pursue economic opportunity.

The Civil Rights Bill of 1866

April 09, 1866
The Civil Rights Bill of 1866Image courtesy of Library of CongressA New York state politician for more than a decade, Representative Henry Raymond served only one term in the House of Representatives.
On this date, the House overrode President Andrew Johnson’s veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 with near unanimous Republican support, 122 to 41, marking the first time Congress legislated upon civil rights. First introduced by Senate Judiciary Chairman Lyman Trumbullof Illinois, the bill mandated that "all persons born in the United States," with the exception of American Indians, were "hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." The legislation granted all citizens the “full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property.” To Radical Republicans, who believed the federal government had a role in shaping a multiracial society in the postwar South, the measure seemed the next logical step after the ratification of the 13th Amendment on December 18, 1865 (which abolished slavery). Representative Henry Raymond of New York noted that the legislation was “one of the most important bills ever presented to this House for its action.” President Johnson disagreed with the level of federal intervention implied by the legislation, calling it “another step, or rather a stride, toward centralization and the concentration of all legislative power in the national Government” in his veto message. The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 proved to be the opening salvo of the showdown between the 39th Congress (1865–1867) and the President over the future of the former Confederacy and African-American civil rights.

Blue Moons between 2047 and 2048

All dates and times are given in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
YearMonthFirst Full MoonBlue Moon
2048January1st at 06:5431st at 00:13

Isaiah 24King James Version (KJV)

24 Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof.
And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him.
The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the Lord hath spoken this word.
The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away, the haughty people of the earth do languish.
The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant.
Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left.
The new wine mourneth, the vine languisheth, all the merryhearted do sigh.
The mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of them that rejoice endeth, the joy of the harp ceaseth.
They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it.
10 The city of confusion is broken down: every house is shut up, that no man may come in.
11 There is a crying for wine in the streets; all joy is darkened, the mirth of the land is gone.
12 In the city is left desolation, and the gate is smitten with destruction.
13 When thus it shall be in the midst of the land among the people, there shall be as the shaking of an olive tree, and as the gleaning grapes when the vintage is done.
14 They shall lift up their voice, they shall sing for the majesty of the Lord, they shall cry aloud from the sea.
15 Wherefore glorify ye the Lord in the fires, even the name of the Lord God of Israel in the isles of the sea.
16 From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs, even glory to the righteous. But I said, My leanness, my leanness, woe unto me! the treacherous dealers have dealt treacherously; yea, the treacherous dealers have dealt very treacherously.
17 Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of the earth.
18 And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake.
19 The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly.
20 The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed like a cottage; and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it; and it shall fall, and not rise again.
21 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall punish the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth.
22 And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited.
23 Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.

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